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The cool, rigid, outer layer of the earth, the lithosphere, is broken into massive plates along discrete boundaries. What are these plates, and what do the boundaries represent?
38th Indian Geography Congress, Department of Geography, University of Mysore, Mysuru (Karnataka), India.
Dates: December 26-28, 2016
Focal Theme: Sustainable Development and Environmental Vulnerability and Geospatial Technology.
For more information, please visit: http://nagi.org.in/circular.pdf
- Convener:Prof. H. Nagaraj, Chairman, Department of Studies in Geography,
- University of Mysore,
- Mysuru – 570006 (Karnataka)
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mobile: 09448939134
Energy, Technology, Sustainability - Time to open a new Chapter
The 79th EAGE (European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers) Conference & Exhibition 2017 is the largest and most comprehensive multi-disciplinary geoscience event in the world.
For more information, please visit: https://www.eage.org/event/?eventid=1488
For more information, please visit: https://www.eage.org/event/?eventid=1488
The beautiful city Paris has been chosen to host the 79th EAGE CConference & Exhibition. The Exhibition will open its doors for you from 12-15 June 2017.
Dates: 12 June - 15 June 2017.
Location: Porte de Versailles, Paris, France.
The 28th International Cartographic Conference will take place in Washington, D.C., USA, July 2-7, 2017.
For more information, please visit: http://icc2017.org/
- T01 Visual analytics, geovisualization, and dynamic cartography.
- T02 Spatial analysis, geocomputation, modeling, and data mining.
- T03 Virtual reality, augmented reality, 3D mapping, and Geodesign.
- T04 Generalization, multi-resolution data, and multi-scale representation.
- T05 Thematic cartography and multivariate data mapping.
- T06 Bertin’s “Sémiologie Graphique” at 50 years; semiology.
- T07 User studies; user experience and usability; user interface design.
- T08 Cognitive issues in map use and design.
- T09 Children and cartography.
- T10 Accessible cartography for people with disabilities.
- T11 Education and training in cartography and geospatial technologies.
- T12 Outreach, geospatial MOOCs, and sharing mapping methods beyond cartography.
- T13 Design of maps.
- T14 Arts and culture; spatial digital humanities.
- T15 History of cartography and historical cartography.
- T16 Digital issues in cartographic heritage; map and geoinformation curatorship.
- T17 Ubiquitous cartography and theoretical cartography.
- T18 Critical cartography; GIS and society.
- T19 Web cartography; map services and apps; GIS cloud computing.
- T20 Collaborative mapping, volunteered geographic information, and crowdsourcing.
- T21 Open source mapping and open geospatial data.
- T22 Location based services, geospatial prospecting, and privacy issues.
- T23 Intellectual property rights in mapping and geospatial data.
- T24 Management, workflows, and supply chains for map publishing and geospatial products.
- T25 Atlas cartography: advances in structure, design, and technology use.
- T26 Spatial semantics and ontologies; spatial data infrastructures; interoperability.
- T27 Quality of geospatial data, maps/charts; data integration, metadata, and standards.
- T28 Big data; sensor networks and remotely-sensed data for mapping; feature extraction from lidar.
- T29 Projections, coordinate systems, transformations, and conversions.
- T30 Topographic mapping; design and update of national mapping series.
- T31 Toponyms: place names as cultural heritage, place-name conflicts, toponymic field work and documentation.
- T32 Mountain cartography and terrain representations; recreation and orienteering maps.
- T33 Cadastral mapping; mapping for city management.
- T34 Digital Transportation Infrastructure: highly precise and continuously updated road models for autonomous vehicles.
- T35 Marine and aeronautical cartography, navigation charts and data, baselines, and sovereign zones.
- T36 Geospatial intelligence and military cartography.
- T37 Early warning, risk reduction, and crisis management using maps and geospatial information systems.
- T38 Sustainable development; adaptation and resiliency mapping.
- T39 Planetary, extrasolar, and celestial cartography.
- T40 Developments in intensively mapped domains: global change, soils, geology, agriculture, humanitarian programs, crime, facilities management, etc.
Among the most dramatic and visible creations of plate-tectonic forces are the lofty Himalayas, which stretch 2,900 km along the border between India and Tibet. This immense mountain range began to form between 40 and 50 million years ago, when two large landmasses, India and Eurasia, driven by plate movement, collided. Because both these continental landmasses have about the same rock density, one plate could not be subducted under the other. The pressure of the impinging plates could only be relieved by thrusting skyward, contorting the collision zone, and forming the jagged Himalayan peaks.
About 225 million years ago, India was a large island still situated off the Australian coast, and a vast ocean (called Tethys Sea) separated India from the Asian continent. When Pangaea broke apart about 200 million years ago, India began to forge northward. By studying the history -- and ultimately the closing-- of the Tethys, scientists have reconstructed India's northward journey. About 80 million years ago, India was located roughly 6,400 km south of the Asian continent, moving northward at a rate of about 9 m a century. When India rammed into Asia about 40 to 50 million years ago, its northward advance slowed by about half. The collision and associated decrease in the rate of plate movement are interpreted to mark the beginning of the rapid uplift of the Himalayas.
Artist's conception of the 6,000-km-plus northward journey of the "India" landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate). Solid lines indicate present-day continents in the Indian Ocean region, but no geologic data exist to determine the exact size and shape of the tectonic plates before their present-day configurations. The dashed outlines for the "India" landmass are given for visual reference only, to show the inferred approximate locations of its interior part in the geologic past. The "India" landmass was once situated well south of the Equator, but its northern margins began to collide against the southward-moving Eurasian Plate about 40 to 50 million years ago (see text).
The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to the north have risen very rapidly. In just 50 million years, peaks such as Mt. Everest have risen to heights of more than 9 km. The impinging of the two landmasses has yet to end. The Himalayas continue to rise more than 1 cm a year -- a growth rate of 10 km in a million years! If that is so, why aren't the Himalayas even higher? Scientists believe that the Eurasian Plate may now be stretching out rather than thrusting up, and such stretching would result in some subsidence due to gravity.
|Sunset view of towering, snow-capped Mt. Everest, from the village of Lobuche (Solu-khumbu), |
Nepal. (Photograph by Gimmy Park Li.)
Fifty kilometers north of Lhasa (the capital of Tibet), scientists found layers of pink sandstone containing grains of magnetic minerals (magnetite) that have recorded the pattern of the Earth's flip-flopping magnetic field. These sandstones also contain plant and animal fossils that were deposited when the Tethys Sea periodically flooded the region. The study of these fossils has revealed not only their geologic age but also the type of environment and climate in which they formed. For example, such studies indicate that the fossils lived under a relatively mild, wet environment about 105 million years ago, when Tibet was closer to the equator. Today, Tibet's climate is much more arid, reflecting the region's uplift and northward shift of nearly 2,000 km. Fossils found in the sandstone layers offer dramatic evidence of the climate change in the Tibetan region due to plate movement over the past 100 million years.
At present, the movement of India continues to put enormous pressure on the Asian continent, and Tibet in turn presses on the landmass to the north that is hemming it in. The net effect of plate-tectonics forces acting on this geologically complicated region is to squeeze parts of Asia eastward toward the Pacific Ocean. One serious consequence of these processes is a deadly "domino" effect: tremendous stresses build up within the Earth's crust, which are relieved periodically by earthquakes along the numerous faults that scar the landscape. Some of the world's most destructive earthquakes in history are related to continuing tectonic processes that began some 50 million years ago when the Indian and Eurasian continents first met.
This is a very high detailed animation of Mount Everest. It was created by scientists of the German Aerospace Center.
Victoria Falls, a World Heritage site in Zambia and Zimbabwe.
This animation uses narration and illustrations to explain the greenhouse effect and how it relates to climate change. It starts by describing the Earth's energy balance and the natural greenhouse effect. It then explains how human activities are contributing to an enhanced greenhouse effect that produces global warming.
The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained.
Gomukh, the terminus or snout of the Gangotri Glacier, from where Bhagirathi River originates, is one of the primary sources of the Ganges River.