Sedimentary Rocks - MCQs Test and Answers

01. ________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth. 
A) Secondary 
B) Igneous 
C) Metamorphic 
D) Sedimentary

02. Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
A) Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.
B) Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata. 
C) Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale. 
D) Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.

03. ________ in layered sedimentary rocks are evidence for horizontal compression and shortening. A) Normal faults
B) Strike-slip faults 
C) Horsts and grabens
D) Tight folds

04. The ________ of the Appalachian orogen consists of North American, continental shelf strata deposited prior to the late Paleozoic collision with Africa.
A) metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Blue Ridge
B) igneous and regionally metamorphosed rocks of the Piedmont 
C) Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the coastal plain and continental shelf 
D) folded, sedimentary rocks of the Valley and Ridge Province

05. ________ basins are characterized by thick sequences of relatively undeformed sedimentary rocks.
A) Forearc 
B) Backarc 
C) Transform fault
D) Evaporite

06. A immature sedimentary rock is characterized by:
(a) angular grains 
(b) a variety of minerals 
(c) mixed grain size
(d) poorly sorted texture
(e) all of these

07. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
A. Metamorphic rocks may melt to magma.
B. Sedimentary rocks may weather to igneous rocks. 
C. Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.
D. Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism.

08. Geologists study sedimentary rocks because
a. They provide a record of Earth’s history.
b. They are sources of fossil fuels.
c. They may contain important mineral resources.
d. They may contain fossils, providing a history of life including human evolution
e. All of the above

09. Organisms play a significant role in the origin of _____ sedimentary rock.
a. Clastic
b. Biogenic
c. Chemical
d. Lithologic
e. None of the above

10. Biochemical sedimentary rocks may form by
a. Evaporation 
b. Erosion 
c. Metamorphism
d. Floods
e. None of the above

11. Sedimentary rocks are classified by
a. Mineralogy and fossils.
b. Cementation and compaction.
c. Environment of precipitation and environment of deposition.
d. Composition and texture.
e. All the above

12. The angularity of the edges and corners of grains in a sedimentary rock is referred to as 
a. roughness
b. smoothness 
c. rounding
d. abruptness
e. none of the above

13. The process of reducing pore space by depositing younger sediments on top of older material is referred to as
a. dilation
b. reduction 
c. contraction
d. compaction
e. none of the above

14. A common mineral found in carbonate sedimentary rocks is
a. quartz 
b. K-feldspar 
c. plagioclase
d. calcite
e. gypsum

15. An example of a siliceous chemical sedimentary rock is
a. quartz siltstone 
b. quartz sandstone 
c. quartz mudstone
d. chert
e. siliceous argillite

16. Alluvial fans develop at the base of
a. the continental shelf
b. the continental slope
c. mountain fronts
d. fault scarp
e. none of the above

17. A stable platform is a region characterized by
A. No vertical crustal movement until recent times 
B. A complete lack of deformed rocks at any depth
C. Numerous folds and faults
D. Horizontal sedimentary rocks overlying the crystalline Basement Complex rocks
E. Extensive exposures of igneous and metamorphic rocks

18. The material from which chemically-precipitated sedimentary rocks are made is transported to the place of deposition
A. by wind. 
B. as silt. 
C. as sediment particles.
D. as clastic particles.
E. in solution.

19. Fossil remains of ancient organisms are most commonly found in
A. basalt. 
B. granite. 
C. metamorphic rocks.
D. gypsum.
E. sedimentary rocks

20. Which of the following particles in sedimentary rocks is smallest in size?
A. Silt 
B. Clay 
C. Gravel
D. Sand

01. D
02. D
03. D
04. D
05. A
06. E
07. B
08. E
09. B
10. A
11. D
12. C
13. D
14. D
15. D
16. C
17. D
18. E
19. E
20. B